Fighting the Dreaded Flea

Holistic Pet Care at Home:  Fighting the Dreaded Flea©

Natasha Kassell, VMD

(Reprinted with permission from Dr. Kassell)


It’s summer, and that means it’s the height of flea season.  Hopefully your life is free of these little buggers, but among pets and pet households, they are a commonplace occurrence even with care and prevention.  Fortunately, there are ways to deal with fleas while causing minimal harm to our pets, ourselves, and our environment.

For starters, I’ll discuss the lifecycle of the flea.  Adult fleas spend most of their lives on dogs and cats, feasting, mating and laying hundreds of minute eggs.  The eggs are slippery and slide off the dogs and cats into the environment, concentrating in areas where our pets spend most of their time.  As little as two days after being laid, millimeter-long, worm-like larvae hatch from the eggs.  These larvae burrow into dark places such as carpet, bedding and cracks between floorboards where they spin tiny cocoons, much like butterflies.

When it’s cool and dry, or when there are no mammals or birds around to feed on, fleas remain in their cocoons for up to two years. During warm, humid months, adult fleas emerge from the cocoons one to two weeks after spinning them.  Other stimuli that signal it’s time to emerge include vibrations and carbon dioxide emitted by warm-blooded animals including dogs, cats and humans.  This is the reason you can enter a house that was inhabited by pets months or even years earlier and suddenly be attacked by hordes of hungry, freshly-hatched fleas.

How to combat the voracious little vampires? A strong immune system is the first line of defense.  The immune system is important not only for fighting off internal germs and parasites, but external, as well.  This point was vividly illustrated to me a couple of years ago when my old cat was nearing the end of his life.  He became quite debilitated, and practically overnight, was covered with fleas, poor guy.  Yet I couldn’t find a single flea on our dog, who was young and vibrant.

There are many factors to consider in supporting your pets’ immune system.  A nutritious diet, preferably based on raw or lightly cooked foods, is key.  Medications, including vaccinations, should be used sparingly.  When possible, choose modalities to treat illnesses that increase the overall health of your pets such as homeopathy, acupuncture and chiropractics.  Minimize contact with toxins: exterminator sprays, poisonous cleaning products and topical flea and tick preparations, to name a few.

Providing your pets with plenty of fresh air, sunshine and exercise is also important.  I realize that for indoor-only cats, this can be difficult to accomplish.  Like dogs, cats can get used to being on a leash.  Lara, who works in the Co-op Pet Store, told me that, much like my dog, her cat begs to go out on his leash.  This is a great compromise that will keep your cats (and neighborhood songbirds) safe while still providing them with some of the benefits of getting outside.

Nutritional supplements that can help repel fleas include garlic, B-vitamins and fish oil.  Though many people have fed their dogs and cats garlic for years without any problem, its use has become controversial.  Garlic, like onions, contains thiosulfate, which can cause a potentially fatal anemia in dogs and cats.  Use it at your own discretion.  Flea Treats are a chewable product formulated for dogs and cats (not fleas) that contain B-vitamins.  Sea Pet and Nordic Naturals both produce high quality, omega-3 fish oils for pets.

For short-haired cats and dogs, daily flea combing with a comb made specifically for that purpose is helpful at removing adult fleas.  Keep in mind that you have to kill the fleas quickly or they’ll jump away and quickly find their way back onto your pets.  Squash them between your thumbnails until you hear a satisfying pop, drop them in alcohol or roll them between your fingers until their legs are crushed and they can no longer hop.  Though gruesome, these techniques are effective.

Since approximately 75% of the flea’s lifecycle is spent in the environment in the form of eggs, larvae and pupae in cocoons, treating the environment makes sense.  That said, I do not recommend bombs.  Pesticides released from bombs shoot into the air, landing on surfaces where pets lie (and children play), yet failing to penetrate the deeper, darker areas where flea larvae burrow and form their cocoons.

There are several less toxic and more effective solutions for treating the environment.  Vacuum frequently, making sure to discard the vacuum bag after use or the fleas will hatch, crawl out of the bag and waste no time in finding your pets.  Wash all bedding in hot, soapy water and dry on high.  Consider using Flea Buster’s (active ingredient: borate) or diatomaceous earth (food grade only!), which are powders that you apply to carpet and wood floors.  While relatively nontoxic to mammals, birds and reptiles, these products scratch the exoskeleton of the fleas, causing them to dehydrate and die.  Food grade diatomaceous earth can also be used as a flea powder on your pets.  Just be sure not to get the powder in the eyes or nose, as it can be irritating to the respiratory tract and mucous membranes.

Topical herbal sprays such as Only Natural Herbal Defense Spray can help repel fleas and ticks.  My concern is that some pets, especially cats, are sensitive to aromatherapy in herbal sprays.  If your pets show any signs of side effects, such as skin irritation or foaming at the mouth, rinse them to remove the spray and discontinue use.

What if you do all of the above, and your pet still has fleas?  As a last ditch resort, I reach for the big guns such as Frontline, Advantage and Revolution.  Many veterinarians recommend monthly, year-round application of these spot-on products.  I do not.  These products contain strong pesticides and should be used judiciously.  Here in Philly, it’s almost never necessary to use them year round.  Our toughest flea months tend to be August, September and October.  For most pets, a few fleas are tolerable.  For those who get fleas despite the use of benign methods to repel them and become uncomfortably itchy, one to two doses of a spot-on product, applied at an interval of no less than four weeks, is usually sufficient.

The other reason spot-on products concern me is that they are dangerous.  They contain potent pesticides that gradually disperse over the skin and collect in the oil-producing sebaceous glands in the skin.  The pesticides are then wicked onto the hair for 30 days or more, killing any fleas that come in contact with them.  But what effects do these pesticides have on the dogs and cats on whom they’re applied, and on the humans, especially the children, who stroke and cuddle their pets?

Documented acute side effects for dogs and cats include skin irritation, lethargy, hyperactivity, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle tremors, seizures and death.  Long-term effects are unknown, though many spot-on products contain active ingredients that, according to the EPA, are possible or likely carcinogens.  In addition, the ingredients can be lethal to birds, lizards and fish.  Please consider this if your dog likes to swim.

Though not surprising, it’s unfortunate that the most effective flea control products we have are also the most toxic.  Try not to become discouraged.  While fighting fleas can be a challenge, by using an integrated approach, it doesn’t have to be impossible.

Pet Nutrition: A Plug for Raw Foods© by Natasha Kassell, VMD

(Reprinted with permission from Dr. Kassell)

During veterinary school, I was taught that the most nutritious way to feed dogs and cats was to open a bag of Science Diet, pour it into the bowl and let Fido and Boots have at it.  This did not surprise me.  It was how everyone I knew fed their dogs and cats, myself included.  I did not question why it was the best way.  I merely accepted that it was.

I have since learned that eating a diet based on fresh, whole, organic foods is just as important for your dogs and cats (and guinea pigs and rabbits) as it is for you.  For guinea pigs and rabbits that means lots of fresh fruits and veggies.  For dogs and cats it means a diet based on raw, meaty bones.

“Why raw meaty bones?” you might ask.

Because that’s what dogs and cats would eat in the wild.  The entire carcass of the prey: muscle, organs and lots of raw, meaty bones.

Why feed raw as opposed to cooked? 

Many holistic veterinarians are of the opinion that feeding raw foods increases the general health of our patients and may help prevent disorders ranging from dermatitis to autoimmune diseases to cancer.  Raw meat, bones and organs contain proteins and fats in their natural forms, as well as vitamins, minerals, enzymes and other nutrients that are not found in cooked foods––especially if they’re cooked at the extremely high temperatures that dry and canned pet foods are cooked.

Isn’t it dangerous to feed dogs and cats bones? 

We all know never to feed our pets cooked chicken bones.  Raw bones have a completely different property.  They do not splinter into dangerous shards the way cooked bones do.

Won’t my dog or cat get sick from bacteria in the meat?

While this is a possibility, I have not seen it happen.  Dogs and cats digest bacteria, including E. coli and Salmonella, more effectively than humans.  Most holistic vets feel that the health benefits of feeding a raw diet outweigh the risks of our pets getting sick from the food.  Toxoplasmosis is one food-born disease that I have seen, and though it was only once, it does concern me.  The good news is that freezing meat for 72 kills Toxoplasmosis.

How do I feed my dog or cat a raw diet? 

There are two options.  The first is to prepare the food yourself using chicken or turkey necks and backs, some organ and muscle meat, and a bit of pulverized vegetables to simulate the material found in the prey’s gut.  It’s important to get the ratios right.  For dogs, there’s an excellent little book that outlines how to feed a balanced raw, meaty bone-based diet called Raw Dog Food: Make It Easy for You and Your Dog, by Carina Beth McDonald.  Some of the other titles on my shelf are Dr. Ian Billinghurst’s Give Your Dog a Bone and The BARF Diet: Raw Feeding for Dogs and Cats Using Evolutionary Principles.  (BARF is a less than charming acronym for “biologically available raw foods”.)  These books are available locally through the Big Blue Marble Bookstore and can also be found on

For cats and small dogs, this diet works best if you grind the bones or find someone to grind them for you.  Or you can purchase the food.  This is exciting news.  Complete, frozen, raw meaty bone-based diets are now available from health food stores, some veterinary offices and pet stores, including Weavers Way Pet Store and The Bone Appetite in Chestnut Hill.  Some of the many high quality brands are Steve’s, Bravo! and Nature’s Variety.  Weavers Way and Bone Appetite both carry an excellent brand called Primal.

For dogs, another option is to purchase foods through a company called Top Quality Dog Food.  I’ve recently learned of this company.  I’m excited about it as a) the meats do look to be of excellent quality, b) price-wise, they’re more affordable than other raw meaty bone-based diets, and c) the company is relatively local (based in Maryland), and their meats come from relatively local sources.  To check out their products and place an order, google

No matter where you get your food, the most important thing is to feed your pets as Mother Nature intended, using as many fresh, whole and raw ingredients as possible.  The payoff will be a friskier Fido, a bouncier Boots and fewer visits to the vet for all of you.